Already half the world lives in a pandemic COVID-19, covering all parts of the globe. Although many countries have removed the main part of quarantine measures, coronaviruses remain a major threat. Moreover, experts increasingly say about the second wave of the epidemic, which may be no less serious problem for society than the first. She already faced the people of Australia, Israel, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and several other countries. There is such a risk for Russia. The situation is aggravated by the approach of the autumn-winter period with the traditional splash of SARS and influenza. So today the challenge is to strengthen the immunity of the Russians with the help of vaccinations, around which traditionally simmer serious disputes. How safe and effective it can be, which vaccine, adjuvant or bazazyants, to prefer, and how competitive our domestic development – these issues concern how the General public and medical specialists.
Conclusive answers are obtained in a number of studies, including in scientific work recently conducted by group of scientists under the guidance of a recognized expert in immunology Michael Kostikova, Professor, head of the laboratory of vaccine and immunotherapy research Institute of vaccines and sera named after I. I. Mechnikov. The results were published in the international journal “Frontiers in Immunology-Vaccines and Molecular Therapeutics”1, arousing much interest in the professional community.
The researchers compared the Russian and foreign flu vaccines, including with the use of adjuvant – substances that increase the specific immune response to antigens. Interest in the use of adjuvants is not accidental. On the one hand, they stimulate the activity of immune cells responsible for antibody production and cell protection, and on the other they ensure the prolongation of the immune response. More than 90 years of successful practice in the application of adjuvants suggests that their inclusion in the vaccines reduces the amount of antigen and, in some cases, the number of immunization when you create a strong immunity to infectious diseases. This is especially important for vulnerable groups: children, the elderly, pregnant women, people with cardiovascular diseases and for those who can’t tolerate traditional vaccines, and persons with weakened immune systems. In addition, adjuvants make it possible to provide antigen-Claregalway strategy in the production, and therefore producing more doses available of the number of antigens to vaccinate more people, which is especially important at the onset of an influenza pandemic.
A team of researchers under the leadership of Mikhail Kostinov, having vast experience of studying vaccines in different population groups (elderly, pregnant women, persons with primary immune deficiency disease) first compared the effect of an influenza vaccine with adjuvants, anoxemia the bromide Polyoxidonium on the cytokine profile of mononuclear leukocytes in women with vaccines without adjuvant. The study involved women from 18 to 40 years who were never vaccinated against influenza.
Why was set this task? As you know, there are 2 type immune response aimed at eliminating foreign agents – humoral and cellular. Humoral immune response is accomplished by the production of antibodies (immunoglobulins) to foreign agent, while the mechanism of cellular immunity is associated with the production of specific cells protection.
Lately, by who there were recommendations to evaluate when choosing vaccines, not only the level of humoral immunity (to determine their immunogenicity by antibody levels), but additionally take into account cell-mediated immunity. It is proved that this type of immune response provides the primary protection of the organism in various diseases. Moreover, cellular immunity is more versatile than humoral. It can protect not only against specific type of virus, but rather a wide range of pathogens. Finally, cellular immunity lasts longer than humoral, which, due to the gradual reduction of the level of antibodies in the blood begins to significantly decrease after six months. As a result, the formed cellular immunity can significantly increase the intervals between vaccinations.
It is established that the cellular immune response is determined by the participation of T-cells, which synthesize and release different cytokines – low molecular weight proteins involved in transmitting signals from one cell to another. They all combine to form a cytokine network – the basis for the regulation of the immune system. On the one hand, they are required to facilitate cell-cell interaction and formation of linkages within the immune process. On the other hand, the level of their products to judge the activity of the cells.
Russian scientists conducted a study of 3 vaccines immunoadjuvants (Grippol plus), subunit (influvak) and split-vaccine (Vaksihryp), confirmed the assumption that immunoadjuvant part of the first vaccine has the ability to generate cell-mediated immunity to a greater extent. Despite the fact that all three vaccines in one degree or another contribute to the increase of the content in the culture fluid cytokines, immunoadjuvants vaccine showed the highest effect, because actively induced the synthesis of Th1 cytokines. At the same time a subunit vaccine has had the least influence on the level of Th1 compared to immunoadjuvants and a split vaccine, which took an intermediate position.
Thus, in the study it was proved that the use of the adjuvant allows to increase the immunogenicity of vaccines. According to the results, Russian vaccine with adjuvant and a smaller amount of antigen (5 µg), not only not inferior to foreign subunit and split vaccines that contain a standard amount of antigen (15 µg), but, on the contrary, shows a greater efficiency. The study also showed that it is better tolerated due to reduced content of antigens and the inclusion of the adjuvant with high safety profile.
According to Mikhail Kostinov, the difference in the mechanism of action of adjuvant vaccine bazazyants is that it provides for the formation of not only humoral immunity but also cellular. This, incidentally, explains the breadth of action of the vaccine adjuvant. At the expense of cellular immunity and activation of cells of innate memory it can protect the human body from a variety of respiratory viruses.
According to the scientist, in Russia anoxemia bromide (Polyoxidonium) has been used successfully in many pathologies, including infectious viral diseases separately as a standalone product or as an optional component in the vaccine. Mikhail Kostinov said that influenza vaccine with adjuvant anoxemia bromide is used against the flu for more than 20 years, including in the framework of the National preventive vaccination calendars of the Russian Federation and other countries.